Scientific Fertilization —— Make Grapes High in Yield and Quality
1. Base fertilizer
The end of autumn is the best time to apply base fertilizer to grapevines. At this time, we should pay attention to the combined application of organic fertilizer and microbial fertilizer, and apply 2000 kg ~2500 kg of decomposed organic fertilizer and 2 ~ 3 kg of microbial fertilizer per 666㎡; In addition, don't neglect the use of chemical fertilizers (mainly nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers), and apply 15 ~ 20 kg of urea or 30 ~ 40 kg of ammonium sulfate per 666㎡. The base fertilizer should be turned deep into the soil. The fertilization method of organic fertilizer + microbial fertilizer + chemical fertilizer not only provides quick-acting nutrition for grapevines, but also improves the micro-ecological environment of soil, which plays a role in improving soil. The next year will blossom better and it will be easier to supplement the nutrients needed for the whole growth period.
2. Reasonable topdressing
- Topdressing before germination: It is carried out in the early spring when the buds begin to expand. At this time, quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer should be used as the main fertilizer, supplemented by microbial fertilizer, and root topdressing is better. The application amount accounts for about 10% ~ 15% of the annual fertilizer application amount. This top dressing will promote root absorption after the vine enters the bleeding period. The application of microbial fertilizer can also increase the germination rate, increase the inflorescence, and make the new shoots grow stronger, thereby increasing the yield. If sufficient base fertilizer is applied in autumn, top dressing is not required in this period;
- Topdressing before flowering: Spraying fertilizer outside the root two weeks before flowering, this time mainly spraying boron fertilizer, and also spraying microbial fertilizer. This fertilizer not only plays a role in protectting flowers and fruits, but also improves the transformation of photosynthetic substances, which has a good effect on the flowering, pollination, fertilization, and fruit setting, as well as the differentiation of flower buds in the current year;
- Topdressing in young fruit stage: Nitrogen fertilizer is mainly applied at young fruit expansion stage, combined with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Deeply plow the ground and bury the fertilizer in a shallow trench or hole that is 15-20cm deep and 30-50cm away from the plant. In addition, spray the microbial fertilizer once. This top dressing not only promotes the expansion of young fruit, but also is extremely important for the differentiation of flower buds of new shoots and auxiliary shoots. The spraying of sweeteners can promote the color of grapes in advance and accumulate sugar;
- Topdressing at maturity: Spraying microbial sweeteners, and applying a large amount of microbial fertilizers mainly containing potassium and calcium when the fruits begin to color. During this period, do not apply nitrogen fertilizer to the soil with sufficient fertilizer. The fertilization method is soil or leaf foliar application.
3. In addition to reasonable base fertilizer and timely topdressing, some aspects of field operation cannot be ignored.
- The base fertilizer must be applied after decomposing, especially chicken manure. It's best to use a better fertilizer starter for decomposition and fermentation, and then apply it to the field. Base fertilizer cannot always be applied at the same position, which will easily cause root growth to be blocked and rot and die. (Chicken manure contains more heavy metals, which can easily lead to heavy metal poisoning in crops)
Fertilizer in fermentation
- Try to avoid damaging thick roots when top dressing, and water thoroughly after fertilization. According to the conditions of the soil, add the lacking nutrients as appropriate, especially some secondary and trace elements.
In addition, reasonable pruning and weeding are necessary. Reasonable fertilization is the key to increase production and sweeten grapes. The application of organic fertilizer and microbial fertilizer increases the inhalable trace elements in soil and various organic acids secreted by microorganisms, which are the main factors to improve the sugar accumulation and bright color of grapes.
Grapevine fertilization in summer can refer to the following methods:
- Foliar fertilizer. It is mainly sprayed on the back of leaves, and branches and young fruits can also be sprayed appropriately. It can be sprayed throughout the growth period after the summer. In order to improve efficiency, it can be mixed with pesticides. It is best to spray in the evening without wind and rain,or from 8 am to 10 am. Usually spray once every 10 days to 15 days, 2 to 4 times in a row;
- Fertilize on the 10th day after the flower dies or when the fruit has the size of mung bean grains, and apply 500 grams of compound fertilizer to each plant in the furrow, and then water and cover the soil in time. Then spray the pedicle strengthening agent on the leaf surface, which is the key fertilizer to promote the expansion of young fruit and the growth of branch tips. It must be sprayed on time to effectively increase the expansion vitality of the fruit and increase the yield;
- After the grapes are harvested, nitrogen fertilizer should be applied in time to enhance leaf function, prolong leaf life, and increase the nutrient reserves of grapevines. There are two methods: foliar spraying and soil application, and the combination of the two is better. Spray 0.4% urea solution, fertilize the soil with 4kg of urea per 666㎡.
Big and ripe fruits